There are three types of commercial property policies. The policies protect against different causes of damage or "perils."
- Basic Coverage Form policies cover common perils like fires and storms.
- Broad Coverage Form policies cover common perils, as well as things like water damage; structural collapse; sprinkler leakage; and damage caused by ice, sleet, or weight of snow.
- Special Coverage Form policies cover all types of perils except those the policy specifically excludes. Typical exclusions include damages from flood, earth movement, war, terrorism, nuclear disaster, wear and tear, and insects and vermin.
Replacement Cost and Actual Cash Value Coverage
Most commercial property policies provide either replacement cost coverage, actual cash value coverage, or a combination of both.
- Replacement Cost Coverage will pay to rebuild or repair your property, based on current construction costs. Replacement cost is different from market value and doesn't include the value of your land.
- Actual Cash Value Coverage will pay to rebuild or replace your property minus depreciation. Depreciation is a decrease in value because of wear and tear or age. If your business is destroyed and you only have actual cash value coverage, you might not be able to completely rebuild.
Commercial Property Coverages
Commercial property policies aren't standardized. This means coverages and policy terms will vary by insurance company and by policy. If a policy doesn’t provide all the coverage you need, you can buy endorsements to add or increase coverage. Endorsements usually raise your premium.
The following are some typical commercial property coverages:
- Building Occupied by the Insured Coverage insures a building that you regularly use but don't own. This coverage can be important if you lease or borrow a building.
- Newly Acquired or Constructed Buildings Coverage insures a new building if you add it to your policy within a certain amount of time. If you don't tell your insurance company within the time period -- usually 30 days -- your policy won't cover the new building. Commercial property policies usually only cover buildings named in the policy.
- Employees' Personal Property Coverage insures your employees' personal property if the property is on your premises. Generally, you must buy this coverage as an endorsement if you need more than a limited amount.
- Off-Premises Property Coverage covers your property located off site. If a policy doesn’t cover off-premises property, or provides only limited coverage, you might need an endorsement or a separate policy to cover it.
- Business Interruption Coverage pays for the income you'd lose if your business is damaged and you can't perform your normal business operations.
- Extra Expense Coverage pays any additional costs to return your business to normal after it's damaged.
- Valuable Papers Coverage provides limited coverage for your business records and other valuable papers. You might be able to increase the coverage amount with an endorsement.
- Ordinance or Law Coverage pays additional costs to repair or rebuild a facility to current building codes after it's damaged. Many policies provide limited ordinance coverage, but you can increase the coverage with an endorsement.
- Boiler and Machinery Coverage covers boilers, air conditioning units, compressors, steam cookers, electric water heaters, and similar machinery. Coverage is usually only for machinery listed in the policy and to losses caused by malfunctions of boilers or machinery, such as when a boiler explosion or water heater leak causes damage to other property. You can buy this coverage as an endorsement or a separate policy.
- Inland Marine Coverage insures goods in transit by land, air, or inland waterways. It also covers projects under construction and transportation and communications structures, such as bridges, tunnels, and communications towers.
Commercial Package Policy (CPP) are policies that combine several coverages such as commercial property, commercial liability, inland marine, and sometimes commercial auto into a single policy. It’s usually less expensive to buy a CPP than to buy the coverages individually. Business Owners Policy (BOP) are policies that also combine property and liability coverage in one policy. BOP's are "ready made" right off the shelf policy packages. BOP's are policies that are primarily for small businesses with low exposure such as basic office opersations such as a bookkeeping office or a lawyer's office.
Other Coverages to Consider
You can buy several types of coverage to protect your business from crime. Common crime coverages include:
- Loss of Glass and Money due to Theft pays for damage to glass and for a theft of money resulting from a break-in.
- Robbery and Safe Burglary (property other than money) is a more limited form of coverage that doesn't include a loss of money or securities.
- Forgery or Alteration protects your business against forgery or alteration of checks, drafts, promissory notes, or other types of payments.
- Theft, Disappearance, and Destruction Coverage insures money, securities, and other property against losses, both on your premises and off premises in the custody of an employee or messenger.
A policy may pay for losses due to crime on either a loss-sustained basis or discovery basis.
- Loss-Sustained Coverage pays for losses that happened during the policy period.
- Discovery Coverage pays for losses that happened at any time.
Both types of crime coverage require that you learn about the crime during the policy period or extended reporting period.
Some insurance companies include flood coverage in their commercial property policies for areas with a low flood risk. However, most flood insurance is available only through the Federal National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) runs NFIP. Some insurance companies may provide flood coverage in addition to NFIP coverage. One can also secure flood coverage through a surplus lines market that is not secured or underwritten by the NFIP, however, if a property has a mortgage, most mortgage companies require that the flood insurance be secured with a NFIP participating company.
Wind and Hail Insurance along the Gulf Coast
Some Insurance companies exclude wind and hail coverage from commercial property policies in coastal regions. If your business is in a coastal area like Lousiana, Texas, and Mississippi, you will have to buy a separate windstorm policy, or we will have to place your property coverage with one of our many surplus insurance markets.
Understanding Commercial Property Rates
Insurance companies use a process called underwriting to determine how likely your business is to file a claim. The greater the likelihood of a claim, the higher the premium will be. If an insurance company determines that your business is at a high risk for a loss, it may decline to issue you a policy.
Fire risk is usually the primary factor that determines a business's commercial property rates. Insurance companies do inspections as part of the underwriting process. Fire inspectors use a standard rating system and weigh five factors to determine a structure's fire rating. The five factors are:
- Construction Materials. Buildings made of potentially combustible materials will have higher premiums, while those made of fire-resistant materials could earn a discount. Additions to an existing structure might affect a fire rating, so it's a good idea to talk to your agent or insurance company before remodeling. Internal structural elements can also affect a fire rating. Using wood partitions, floors, and stairways in an otherwise fire-resistant building will likely nullify any rate reduction. Fire-resistant interior walls, floors, and doors can help maintain a good fire rating.
- Location. Buildings in cities or towns with good fire protection typically cost less to insure than buildings outside a city or in areas with limited fire protection.
- Occupancy. A building's use also affects it's fire rating. An office building will likely rate better than a restaurant or auto repair shop. In a building with multiple tenants, one hazardous occupant will negatively affect the fire rating of the entire building. If your business is in a building with a more hazardous tenant, your premiums will be higher.
- Fire Protection Measures. Automatic sprinklers can reduce a building's fire rating by as much as 50 percent. Buildings with fire extinguishers and automatic alarms and those within 500 feet of a fire hydrant will usually have lower ratings.
- Exposure. Nearby hazards increase a building's fire risk. Proximity to external fire hazards, such as a lumberyard or oil storage tank, will affect a fire rating even more. Other things that could affect your fire risk include cluttered buildings and grounds, heavy mechanical or electrical equipment, or volatile materials stored on site.
Shopping for Commercial Property Insurance
The following tips can help you find the best deal for your money:
- Remove all possible hazards before applying for coverage. Look at your business's premises and operations carefully to get rid of anything that could increase the likelihood of an insurance claim. Improving employee safety, security, and inventory management might reduce the amount you pay for commercial property insurance and other types of coverage. Most insurance companies also offer loss-control or risk-reduction services. Talk to your agent or insurance company about ways to find and eliminate hazards.
- Get quotes from several companies. When comparing prices, make sure you're comparing policies with similar coverage. A cheaper policy might provide less coverage.
- Keep shopping if an insurance company says it won't cover your business. Insurance companies have different underwriting criteria. If one company turns you down or is too expensive, try other companies.
- Consider higher deductibles. Almost all commercial property policies have a deductible, which is the amount you must pay toward the cost of a claim before the insurance company will start to pay. The higher your policy's deductible, the lower your premium. Keep in mind that you'll have to pay more out of pocket if you have a claim. Your policy will also have a policy limit, which is the maximum amount the insurance company will pay for any covered loss.